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Investing in Stocks & The Stock Market: Everything you need to know

Investing in Stocks & The Stock Market: Everything you need to know

Shares, also known as stocks, are an important tool for building wealth. They’re referred to on your paycheck as a share of company profits or assets that you own. But what’s the exact definition of a “stock” and what should you know about them? Find out everything you have to know in 2021 about stocks and the stock market – read about the latest trends, financial terms, and lots of advice for investing.

What’s a stock?

Shares represent a company’s ownership in an enterprise that can be traded on an exchange. When you own a share you have your own portion of the profits, or dividends from that company. Shares can be sold on an exchange or to other investors. A company can issue more than one share in order to raise money and then pay dividends on the total number of shares it has issued. Shares may also be called warrants, which allow shareholders to buy or sell their shares at a certain price for a certain period of time (usually up to 6 months).

Example:  To understand better how shares work, consider the following example. A company “X”, is formed and requires an investment of $1,000 to start. You buy stocks and give “X” $100. From now on, you are a shareholder. Shareholders in company “X” (individuals or groups who have invested in the company) are entitled to a portion of the profits made through running the business for as long as they hold stocks. This is commonly referred to as a dividend and can be paid at the discretion of the board of directors. As a part owner, you have a say in who is on this board and can vote for individuals who reflect your ideas on running the company in future years.

Types of Stocks

There are many types of stocks, but the most popular ones are divided into: 

Common Stock – Common stock is the most popular type of stock, and represents ownership in a company. They are traded on the market and their value fluctuates with supply, demand, growth potential of the company, and other factors.  

Preferred Stock – Preferred stocks have dividend rights (as proportional compensation for the lower level of risk). They also have priority when receiving payments if a company goes bankrupt. Some preferred stocks can be converted to common stock after a certain amount of time has passed. 

What’s the Stock Market?

The stock market is a worldwide network where individual investors can purchase shares of companiesShares on the stock market are purchasedsold, and traded according to the laws of financesupply and demandIt’s one of the most important ways that people invest or save moneyas it provides a way for everyone to easily buy shares at an affordable price. 

What’s a Joint-Stock Company?

A joint- stock company is usually an association of investors with large capital. Each of the members of the company has clearly limited rights in terms of the amount invested in the company.

Investing on the Stock Market: What is Investing in Shares?

Investing in shares allows you to gain partial ownership in companies that are constantly ‘floating’ on international stock markets for anyone to buy and sell.  Rather than investing all your money in one company, as you would with a single share, by buying shares in lots of different companies, you spread the risk and maximize potential profits. 

investing ins tocks and the stock market everything you need to know

Stock Trading: How to buy a stock?  

Stock trading and investing require good financial literacy and preparation. In addition, it is extremely important for the investor to be aware of the existing investment risk, as well as to be able to assess the potential return on their assets! 

So, how to buy a stock?  

  1. First, choose one or more companies that interest you. Always diversify! 
  2. Then, decide how much money you want to invest and how many shares to buy. You can buy shares from one share to thousands of shares. 
  3. Choose the right, reliable and secure investment platform 
  4. Find out what the price is of the stock from the various stock market listings. 
  5. Make sure you know the financial history of the company, and any symbols used for trading purposes (for example, TSLA for Tesla). You can ask a stockbroker or company secretary for help, or check your country’s securities exchange commission’s website. 
  6. Prepare an investment strategy and do not take too high risks, especially if you are a beginner. 

Stock Market Prices: How is the stock market price determined?

The price of a share is based on the company’s current supply and demandThis is affected by a wide range of economic variablessuch asthe condition of the country’s economythe export/import situationinterest ratescurrency exchange rates etc. The price is also affected by how much individuals think they will make or lose from buying and selling sharesFor exampleif there are good company results coming out soonyou can expect that the price will riseThis is known as speculationThe opposite – when people think they will lose money – is known as pessimism and would result in a decline in share prices. 

Pros and Cons of Investing in Stocks

Here are some of the main pros and cons of investing in stocks:

  •  Potential growth 

Shares can provide you with a diversified portfolio with potential for growth. For example, if you’re investing in shares in a stock market index fund, over time the return from these funds should closely track the returns from the market as a whole. 

  • Reinvesting Gains 

You can reinvest dividends and capital gains from your shares into more shares of the same company. A lot of market follow strict rules in place to prevent market manipulation by those who are acquiring large numbers of shares to control voting rights or push companies into financial difficulties.

  • No Interest 

You can get paid for your shares without having to pay out any interest. This is because the company pays you a dividend instead. Similarly, you can also sell some or all of your shares at any time for profit.

Disadvantages of investing in shares include that shares may not grow as much as other assets and there is always the risk that you could lose all of your money if the company you’re investing in goes bankrupt. If you’re thinking about purchasing shares, it can be helpful to get some advice from a professional adviser before making any decisions.

investing ins tocks and the stock market everything you need to know

Shareholder vsShareholding

What’s the difference between a shareholder and a shareholding? 

A shareholder is someone who owns shares in a company. A shareholding is an estimate of an investor’s interest in a company based on their holding. 

Investment Strategies

Investing isn’t as easy as it looks. That’s why, before you throw your money in the stock market or roll the dice on an IPO, it’s important to cover some basic ground rules and know everything there is to know about currencies and exchange rates.  

When deciding your investment strategy, there are many ways to buy shares, but all these have some common features. First, make sure you know exactly what you are buying: 

  • How much capital you have set aside for buying shares? 
  • How long you will stay invested before selling (or sharing) these shares 
  • How many shares of the stock do you want to buy at a time (you may be able to buy smaller amounts if they are relatively cheap) 

 Some examples of buying strategies include using the “balanced spread” method – when you divide the amount of money into fixed-term deposit & share investment options. It works well for funds that are not in a hurry to get their money back. 

So, here are some pretty common investment strategies for the stock market and share buying and selling: 

  • The “Invest for the Long-term” Strategy 

The first rule of investing is to make sure that you are invested for the longterm. What does that mean exactly? Well, if you’re planning on investing for five years or less, we recommend that you stick with stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). This way, you will be able to reap some decent gains. If you’re planning on investing for more than five years, we recommend that you switch to mutual funds, which will be more guaranteed. 

  • “Buy Low, Sell High” Strategy 

This is a tried and true investment principle that can help you make big money in the market—and it’s easier than you think. If you want to buy low and sell high, all you have to do is buy when the market is low (say, at the end of a recession) and sell when it’s high (say in the middle of an economic boom). Simple, right?   

  • The “Dollar-Cost Averaging” Strategy 

The first strategy is referred to as dollar-cost averaging (DCA). It is best suited for those who feel they cannot tolerate the stress involved with investing all their assets at once and would rather ration them out over time. 

What’s DCA? The basic concept of DCA is simple. If your investment horizon is longer than a year, the best way to make money from investing is to invest in the market according to plan but to invest less money each month when the price of your chosen investments fall. The logic behind this strategy is that over time, prices will go up again; therefore, if you invest more into your portfolio when they drop heavily, you will have saved more for later. 

These are some of the most popular investment strategies – remember that none of them guarantee a 100% return. It is your responsibility to implement the most appropriate strategy for each individual case. 

investing ins tocks and the stock market everything you need to know

Stock Compensation: Shares as Salary

You have probably heard of some tech and software companies that reward their employees with a small share of the company. Usually, shares work as a form of additional bonus to the salary.

So why do they do it? 

The supply and demand of the stock exchange determine the value of a share. Therefore,  in companies with favorable growth, shares are offered as part of their employees’ motivational strategy. That way, the employees are more motivated to perform better for the organization’s future growth, as the value of their personal shares depends on the overall success of the company.

Top 5 Tips for Stocks & Investing on the Stock Market for Dummies

  1. Always diversify your portfolio 

You can’t stop the stock market from having good and bad years – so it’s not always a good idea to put everything you own into shares. It is better to put some of your money in property, bonds, and bank deposits, which are less risky but may provide more consistent returns than shares. This is known as diversifying your portfolio. 

  • 2. Spread your investment over several companies and sectors 

You may already have some shares in one company and other shares in another. You want to spread out your investment to make sure you don’t lose all of your money, at once. 

If the shares you buy are going up in price, the extra money is being used to pay dividends and buy new shares. Be careful though – if a company is consistently making large profits but then suddenly drops back, this could cause losses for shareholders. It is better if you wait for a while until the company has shown it can deliver consistent profits as long as it’s in business.  

This is known as due diligence – checking the facts and figures behind companies and their performance before investing. 

  • 3. Buy in blocks 

If you’re thinking of buying from the same company, remember that it is usually cheaper to buy in blocks of 10 or more shares at a time. 

  • 4. Never invest money that you will need in the short term 

Buying stocks is risky, that’s why you should never invest money that you will need in the short term! Always have an emergency fund and don’t use the money from it! 

Investment Consultant – Is it Worth it?

Why use an investment expert or consultant? 

If you’re going to buy shares, we strongly recommend that you get advice from an investment expert. This can help you with: 

  • Finding out the prices of shares in a particular company 
  • Taking advantage of stock market opportunities (for example, when the price goes up) 
  • Recognizing potentially bad companies and selling them before a crash.  

A trusted investment adviser may also be able to advise on which companies you should keep an eye on and when they might go into decline. 

investing ins tocks and the stock market everything you need to know

Trends: What are the most popular stocks in the world for 2021?

Trends in the financial exchange can be contacted by representatives of the company. Influenced by the extreme situation, this with the actions that in 2021 the most popular and most frequently purchased:

  • Pfizer 
  • Moderna 
  • Gamestop 
  • Tesla 
  • Zoom 

You may ask yourself, how much would it cost for me to invest in the most popular stocks

Everything about investing – both in terms of shares and other investment products, such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and mutual funds – is about the risk/reward ratio. Investments that have a high reward often have a high risk included in the process. One of the biggest factors in determining how much money is needed to buy shares is the level of risk versus reward.

For example, when companies are having trouble finding financing through lending institutions due to a poor track record with interest payments, they will often turn to issue shares to raise cash.

Often, the more risk a company presents, the higher the potential reward. From there, a company can make investments in order to improve its profit margins and overall market value. This eventually leads to a higher stock price due to the fact that more people are willing to purchase shares because they offer an increased rate of return.

Even with many companies in an economic environment that is less than ideal, there are still some investments that offer only minimal risk and promise at least some level of reward. Being able to spot these opportunities is key if you are planning on purchasing shares or other investment products.

The price of any share will also depend on how many shares are available compared to how many people want them 

Trading Platforms: What’s a Trading Platform?

 A trading platform is a website that you can log into and use to access different features for buying or selling assets. For example, Bitcoin and Ethereum are both cryptocurrencies, so a trading platform would make it possible to trade between the two of them.  

 Types of Trading Platforms

There are now many different types of trading platforms with varying features. Some well-known types include: 

  • Exchange Platform – An exchange platform will allow you to buy or sell tokens, shares, or cryptocurrencies.  

For example, Coinbase allows you to buy BTC or ETH using USD/EUR. Investors can go on platforms such as Binance or Coinbase for this type of trading because exchanges are much more liquid than tokens themselves. 

  • Auction platform – An auction platform will allow you to bid on, or “offline” purchase, an asset at a set price. For example, you could buy tokens using LTC or ETH and then store them on the platform. As soon as the token hits your approved amount, it will be sent to your address. 
  •  Markets – A market allows you to view up-to-date information about a particular coin or token or share and place bids for them. 

After choosing a platform for trading, the next thing you will be considering is what type of trading tools you would like to use. A lot of traders are now going with the trend of using software to automate their trading. However, we suggest to always keep an eye on the market. 

Top 10 Investors in the World

Here are the top 10 investors in the world:

  1. John Templeton 
  2. Bill Gross 
  3. Michael Hasenstan 
  4. Paul Tudor Jones III 
  5. Julian Robertson 
  6. David Swensen 
  7. Ray Dalio 
  8. George Soros 
  9. Peter Lynch 
  10. Warren Buffett 

Stocks & Investing in the Stock Market: Conclusion

Many factors come into play when deciding what share price to pay for, but the most important thing you should remember is that the price of shares will mostly depend on how many there are available and how much demand there is for them. That’s why important to have an excellent financial literacy, to be aware of politics and economics and even social phenomena. Once you relise how business and money work, you should be able to have a more clear overview of the market and see financial opportunities beforehand.  

So – be patient, be wise, always have a strategy and inform yourself before making a decision. Good luck! 

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